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Friday 14th of June 2024
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Paying a bribe for obtaining ones rights

The third type of bribe is one that is paid for something lawful. Like paying someone in order that he may help in obtaining ones rightful property or to escape from a tyrant. Bribing for lawful things is allowed.

In a tradition Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.) was asked about the person who bribes the occupant of a house to vacate it so that the owner may himself use it as his residence. Imam (a.s.) said that there was no harm in it. However the house mentioned in this hadith does not belong to the person who pays the bribe. It is a trust property or a public place like, the mosque, madrasa, lane, by-lane, and bazaar etc. Thus if someone is occupying a place in the mosque or a student is living in a room in the public hostel, he can be bribed to vacate it.

Hafsul Amr enquired from Imam Ali an-Naqi (a.s.): "The ruler has appointed agents to purchase our agricultural produce. Is it allowed for us to bribe those agents so that we may remain safe from the ruler's tyranny?"

Imam (a.s.) replied, 
"There is no harm in it. You may pay whatever you think fit."

Then Imam (a.s.) asked: 
"Do you have to supply lesser quantity of grain to the ruler after you have paid the bribe to these agents?" "Yes," said the questioner.

"You have invalidated your bribe (i.e. you have made the bribe haraam)," Imam told him.
(Wasaelush-Shia)

Thus it is clear that bribing to cause someone to be oppressed is haraam but it is permitted in order to save oneself from oppression.

Accepting a bribe for doing something lawful

It must however be made clear that though it is permitted to gift something for lawful acts or to save oneself from oppression, it is detestable to accept such gifts. Because these gifts bear a close resemblance to bribe. Also, the habit of bribing for lawful things may make a man habitual and he may be inclined to pay bribes for unlawful purposes too. One is prone to error. If a pious person refrains for Makrooh (detestable) bribe he will never be prone to the haraam bribe. The following tradition supports this fact.

"Those are they for whom Allah does not desire that He should purify their hearts; they shall have disgrace in this world, and they shall have a grievous chastisement in the hereafter. (They are) listeners of a lie, devourers of what is forbidden." 
(Surah Maidah 5:41-42)

Explaining this ayat, Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.) says: 
"It is that person who fulfills the wish of his believing brother and accepts a gift in return."

Shaykh Ansari says in the book, Makasibul Aamaal: "There are many explanations of this tradition. One of it is that we must absolutely refrain from accepting gifts in return for favours done that we may never fall into the trap of accepting bribe."

 

Characteristics of those who eat haraam

A typical feature of earnings by haraam means the money and wealth so acquired. It is narrated from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) that he said,
"The madness of (acquiring or constructing) buildings. Mud and water occupies the head of one who earns by unlawful means."
(Behaarul Anwaar)

It means that a person with unlawful earnings is constantly worried about his wealth and strives to convert it into fixed property so that it is not lost. The buildings of mud and water neither benefit the owner in the Hereafter nor do they provide peace in this world. Such a person spends every bit of his wealth for pieces of land. Finally, Allah orders the land to swallow all his wealth.

Unlawful gains are harmful both from the worldly point of view as there is no barakat in such gain and also from the spiritual point of view as these form obstacles in the acceptance of acts of worship.

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) says: 
"When a single morsel of haraam enters the stomach of a person and becomes a part of his body, the angels of the sky and the earth curse him." 
(Safinatul Behaar)

The Messenger of Allah has also said: 
"Acts of worship accompanied by the acquiring of haraam are like buildings that rest on (crumbling) sand." 
(Safinatul Behaar)

They lack a firm foundation and hence are of no use. Such buildings can never remain intact and are soon destroyed.

Invocations are not accepted

The noble Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has remarked,
"Prayers of the one who eats a single morsel of haraam are not accepted for forty nights nor are his invocations accepted for forty days. Every piece of flesh that grows by consuming haraam is most deserving of being burnt in hell-fire and even a single morsel consumed causes some growth of flesh." 
(Safinatul Behaar)

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has also stated, 
"One who wishes to have his invocations accepted must keep aloof from haraam food and unlawful earnings." 
(Al Kafi)

A man asked the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): 
"I wish for the acceptance of my deeds." The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) told him, 
"Keep your food purified from haraam and do not let any unlawful thing enter your stomach." 
(Al Kafi)

The Almighty Allah revealed to Janabe Isa Ibne Maryam (a.s.): 
"Inform the oppressors of Bani Israel that they must not call Me and invoke Me as long as they are involved in unlawful earnings. And if they call Me and invoke Me in this condition, I will curse them." 
(Al Kafi)

Hardening of the heart

Whatever man eats is like a seed sown in the earth. If the seed is good it will bear sweet fruits. If the seed is bitter and poisonous, so is the fruit that grows from it. If the food is good and lawful it has beneficial effects on the heart. It is purified from every blemish and impurity. The organs of this person perform good deeds, but if one consumes food obtained through unlawful means it causes the heart to harden. The symptoms are soon obvious. A hard hearted person is unaffected by any kind of preaching and remains absolutely impenitent. Such a man is not moved even when he sees clear injustice. No good can be expected from him. Not a trace of goodness is visible in his dark heart. He refuses to accept what is right and is immune to every kind of moral advice. The tragedy of Karbala is the perfect example of this phenomenon. These are the characteristics clearly pointed out by Imam Husain (a.s.) in his address to the troops of Ibne Saad: 
"You bellies are filled with unlawful (wealth). Now you will not accept the truth. Why don't you deal with justice? Why don't you listen to me?" 
(Nafasul Mahmoom)

In other words, when a person's heart becomes hard and darkness occupies it. 
During the rule of the Abbasid King Mahdi, there was a Qazi named Shareek bin Abdullah. He was an honest and upright Judge, till the time he was summoned by the king. The Abbaside King forced him to opt one from three things 
(1) Either he should accept the post of the Royal Qazi 
(2) He should become the teacher of the King's son 
(3) or he should dine with the king, at least once.

The Qazi thought that easiest of the three was to eat with the king once, so he agreed to dine with King Mahdi. The ruler ordered the royal chef to prepare the best of the dishes. When the Qazi had eaten the food, the cook remarked to his companions, "Now, Qazi Shareek will never achieve salvation."

The prediction came to be true. The haraam food affected the Qazi to the extent that he also accepted the other two conditions. He became the special Qazi of the King and the tutor of his children. It is said that Qazi Shareek used to be very strict and unflinching with the treasurers while obtaining his share from the royal treasury.

One day the treasurer protested, "You have not sold me grain that you act so ruthless in recovering its price." Qazi Shareek replied, "Yes, I have sold something more valuable! I have sold my religion."

One day a tray filled with delicious dishes was sent by Haroon al-Rasheed for Bahlool. Bahlool did not accept it. The servants of the king said, "It is not possible to reject the present of the Caliph." Bahlool, the wise, pointed towards the stray dogs and said, "Give it to the dogs."

The servants became angry and said, "You have insulted the royal gifts." Bahlool became silent then said, "Be quiet, if the dogs learn that this food is sent by the king, they will not touch it."

A morsel of halaal food

Eating haraam gives rise to every type of infamy. Whereas, the halaal morsel is the cause of every kind of goodness and charity. Numerous traditions praise the acquisition of livelihood through lawful means. For example the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) says, 
"Worship consists of seventy parts and the best part is earnings by lawful means." 
(Safinatul Behaar)

The Messenger of Allah has also said, 
"When a man eats halaal food an angel stands over his head and prays for his forgiveness till he finishes eating." 
(Safinatul Behaar)

The Prophet has remarked in a similar vein, 
"One who strives to earn his livelihood in a lawful manner from morning till night, achieves salvation." 
(Safinatul Behaar)

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) states that Allah has said: 
"I will not care on the Day of Qiyamat from which door he enters Hell, the person who does not care from which door he earns money in this world." 
(Behaarul Anwaar)

The Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has also mentioned the following tradition:
"One who does nor care from which way he earns wealth in this world will be sent to Hell in Qiyamat and I shall not care from which way he is made to enter it." 
(Behaarul Anwaar)

Allah does not provide unlawful livelihood

Maybe, those who do not refrain from unlawful earnings are afraid that if they give up this chance they may suffer poverty and deprivation. This is just a false notion. It is merely a satanic thought because it goes against the Divine promise of lawful sustenance repeatedly mentioned in the Quran. It is unreasonable, as it is contrary to the numerous traditions of Ahlul Bayt (a.s.). The Almighty Allah has promised to provide sustenance to each and every creature. The Divine promise is never unfulfilled. Allah only tests the believers to see if they strive patiently to acquire lawful livelihood or act impatiently and deviate. Whatever sustenance is decreed is surely received. It is only the impatience of the people and the weakness of their faith that makes them leave the path of lawful earnings and stray towards illegal occupations. When a person does this he fails the test. Allah deprives this person of the lawful sustenance that was in his destiny. Allah has not decreed for anyone unlawful sustenance.

No one dies without receiving his decreed sustenance

On the occasion of the last Hajj, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) addressed the Muslims in the precincts of the Masjidul Haraam: 
"Know that, the trustworthy Spirit (Jibraeel) has informed that no creature dies till he has received his destined sustenance.

Then fear Allah and do not vie among yourself in earning your livelihood. If there is some delay in receiving your sustenance, it must not be that you pursue it in disobedience to Allah. Verily, Allah has distributed only halaal sustenance to every creature. He has not destined haraam sustenance to anyone.

Hence one who fears Allah and acts with patience, Allah shall bestow upon him His sustenance through lawful means. But one who abandons purity and takes up haraam methods, a similar amount shall be decreased from his lawful sustenance. He shall be made to account for his haraam earnings on the Day of Qiyamat. Allah the Almighty has prohibited it in the following words: "...and do not substitute worthless (things) for (their) good (ones)..."
(Surah Nisa 4:2)

It should not be that in a hurry to obtain livelihood you obtain it through illegal ways, before Allah provides you with the halaal sustenance that He had decreed for you."
(Al Kafi)


source : GREATER SINS by Ayatullah-ul-Uzma Sayed Abdul Husain Dastghaib Shirazi (r.a.)
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