Tuesday 3rd of October 2023
نفر 0

The Holy Prophet’s Youth

Chapter Three
The Holy Prophet’s Youth

°ilf al-Fu¤£l

°ilf al-Fu¤£l,[1] the most important Qurayshi treaty,[2] was held among some branches of Quraysh tribe, because one of the Ban£-Zubayd tribe had entered Mecca and sold some goods to al-`ª¥ ibn W¡'il of Ban£-Sahm. The goods were delivered to al-`ª¥ ibn W¡'il who refused to pay the price to the seller. A man from Ban£-Zubayd then came to W¡'il to receive his money, but he received nothing. There was a strong tribal system in Arabia in those days and every tribe tried to defend its own interests and those of its members. If a foreigner was wronged, there was nobody to help or protect him. The Zubaydi man had to climb Ab£-Qubays Mount and say passionate poems to let the leaders of Quraysh hear what injustice he had suffered. At that time, these leaders had gathered below the mountain to have a meeting. Having heard the man's call for justice, Zubayr ibn `Abd al-Mu§§alib encouraged the leaders of Ban£-H¡shim, i.e. `Abd al-Mu§§alib, Ban£-Zuhrah, Ban£-Tam¢m and Ban£-°¡rith (who were among the prominent clans of Quraysh) to gather at the home of `Abdull¡h ibn Jad`¡n al-Taym¢. They convened a treaty according to which nobody, either weak or poor, was to be the subject of any act of injustice. Then they went to the home of al-`ª¥ and received the money for the Zubaydi man.[3] At that time, Mu¦ammad (¥) was twenty years old.[4]

The participation of Mu¦ammad (¥) in this treaty was a brave act. It is interpreted now as a symbolic act of protection of human rights in that backward and ignorant society. His brave and just act is appreciated when we notice that the youngsters of his age in those days were participating in pleasure-seeking parties and did not have any concept of protecting the oppressed or carrying out justice. After prophethood, he used to remember his participation in that treaty with a lot of joy. He said:

“I took part in a treaty at the home of `Abdull¡h ibn Jad`¡n which made me even more delighted than receiving red-haired camels. If at this era of Islam I am invited to such a pact, I will joyfully accept it.”[5]

Since this pact was superior to any other treaty, it had the name of °ilf al-Fu¤£l.[6] This pact was a stronghold for the homeless and the miserable. Later on, it was repeatedly used to protect the oppressed ones in Mecca against tyrants and oppressors.[7]

Second Journey to Damascus

Khad¢jah, daughter of Khuwaylid, was a rich, honorable and dignified trader who used to employ men for trade purposes, provide them with capital and pay them wages in return.[8] When Mu¦ammad (¥) was twenty-five years old,[9] Ab£-±¡lib said to him, “I have become broke and empty-handed. Now a caravan is on its way to Damascus. I wish you to go to Khad¢jah and ask for a job.”

At this time, Khad¢jah had become aware of Mu¦ammad's traits of honesty and good manners. She sent an errand to him saying, “If you accept the supervision of my caravan, I will pay you more than others and I would send my special servant, Maysarah, to help you.” Mu¦ammad (¥) accepted this offer[10] and accompanied the caravan to Damascus accompanied by Maysarah.[11] He could make more money than others.[12]

Maysarah observed such feats of magnanimity in Mu¦ammad (¥) that he was surprised. During this trip, Nus§£r the monk predicted his prophethood. He observed that Mu¦ammad (¥) had some arguments with a man over trade. That man said, “You should swear to L¡t and `Uzz¡ so that I could accept your statement.” Mu¦ammad (¥) replied, “I have never sworn to L¡t and `Uzz¡ in my whole life.”[13] On his return to Mecca, Maysarah told Khad¢jah what he had seen in Mu¦ammad (¥).[14]

Marrying Khad¢jah

Khad¢jah was a farsighted, provident, honorable and dignified woman of noble lineage. She was superior to all women of Quraysh.[15] Due to her high moral standards, she was nicknamed ±¡hirah (immaculate)[16] and Sayyidah (doyenne) of Quraysh.[17] She is said to have married twice but her previous husbands had died.[18] Every Qurayshi nobleman desired to marry her.[19] Some well-known persons such as `Uqbah ibn Ab¢-Mu`¢§, Ab£-Jahl, and Ab£-Sufy¡n had asked her for marriage but she always turned them down.[20]

On the other hand, Khad¢jah was a relative of Mu¦ammad (¥) and both of them had the common ancestor of Qu¥ay. She had recognized the bright future for Mu¦ammad (¥),[21] and was pleased to accept him as her spouse.[22] She made an offer of marriage and he consulted with his uncles who accepted this marriage, which took place in a family gathering.[23] It is said that at that time, Khad¢jah was forty years old and Mu¦ammad (¥) was twenty-five.[24] She was his first wife.[25]

[1] One of the events in which the Holy Prophet is said to have participated in while he was young was the war of al-Fujj¡r. It is said that this war had taken place prior to °ilf al-Fu¤£l when the Holy Prophet was 14-20 years old. However, since his participation in this war is doubtful, we will not follow it up here. See al-¯a¦¢¦ min S¢rat al-Nab¢ al-A`¨am 1:95-97; Some analytical lessons of the history of Islam 1:303-503.

[2] Ibn Sa`d, al-±abaq¡t al-Kubr¡ 1:128; Mu¦ammad Ibn °ab¢b, al-Munammaq, pp. 52.

[3] Mu¦ammad Ibn °ab¢b, op cit, pp. 52-53; Ibn Sa`d, op cit, pp. 128; T¡r¢kh al-Ya`q£b¢ 2:13; Ibn Hush¡m, al-S¢rah al-Nabawiyyah 1:142; al-Bul¡dhar¢, Ans¡b al-Ashr¡f 2:12.

[4] Mu¦ammad Ibn Sa`d, op cit. It is recorded that the age of the Holy Prophet was even older at this time. T¡r¢kh al-Ya`q£b¢ 2:13; al-Munammaq, pp. 53; Ibn Ab¢’l-°ad¢d, Shar¦ Nahj al-Bal¡ghah 15:225.

[5] Ibn Hush¡m, op cit, pp. 142; T¡r¢kh al-Ya`q£b¢, op cit, pp. 13; al-Bul¡dhar¢, op cit, pp. 16; Mu¦ammad Ibn °ab¢b, op cit, pp. 188.

[6] Mu¦ammad Ibn °ab¢b, op cit, pp. 54-55

[7] al-Bul¡dhar¢ 2:13. The memory of this treaty was still fresh at the start of Islam. For instance, during the reign of Mu`¡wiyah al-Wal¢d ibn `Utbah ibn Ab¢-Sufy¡n was the governor of Medina. He quarreled with Imam al-°usayn on a financial issue about the grove of Dhu’l-Marwah. Imam al-°usayn said, “Is al-Wal¢d acting arrogantly against me because he has ruling authority? I swear by Allah, if he does not give me my due, I shall take my sword and stand in the Mosque of Allah calling by the name of °ilf al-Fu¤£l.” When his word was conveyed to `Abdull¡h ibn al-Zubayr, he cried out, “By Allah I swear, if al-°usayn calls by the name of °ilf al-Fu¤£l, I shall certainly take my sword and support him; and then, either he will be given his due or we die altogether.” When al-Wal¢d was informed of these situation, he had to give al-°usayn his due until he pleased him. See Ibn Hush¡m, op cit, 1:142; al-Bul¡dhar¢, op cit, 2:14; °alab¢, op cit, 1:215; Ibn Ab¢’l-°ad¢d, op cit, 15:226; Ibn al-Ath¢r, al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:42.

[8] Ibn Hush¡m, op cit, 1:199; Ibn Is¦¡q, al-Siyar wa’l-Magh¡z¢, pp. 81. Sib§ ibn al-Jawz¢, in Tadhkirat al-Khaw¡¥¥ pp. 301, says “Khad¢jah used to employ them in the form of limited partnership.” Ibn al-Ath¢r, in Usd al-Gh¡bah 1:16, says: “She used to employ either in the form of limited partnership or on a wage-system.”

[9] Ibn Sa`d, op cit, 1:129.

[10] There are some pieces of evidence which show that the Holy Prophet’s job was in the form of limited participation and not on the basis of wage-earning system. See al-¯a¦¢¦ min S¢rat al-Nab¢ al-A`¨am 1:112.

[11] Ibn Hush¡m, op cit, pp. 199; Ibn Is¦¡q, op cit, pp. 81.

[12] Ibn Sa`d, op cit, pp. 130.

[13] Ibn Sa`d, op cit, 130.

[14] Ibn Is¦¡q, op cit, pp. 82; Ibn Sa`d, op cit, p131; Ibn al-Ath¢r, al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:39; T¡r¢kh al-±abar¢ 2:196; al-Bayhaq¢, Dal¡’il al-Nubuwwah 1:215; Ibn al-Ath¢r, Usd al-Gh¡bah 5:435; al-D£l¡b¢, al-Dhurriyyah al-±¡hirah, pp. 45-46.

[15] Ibn Hush¡m, op cit, 1:200-201; Ibn Sa`d, op cit, 1:131; al-Bayhaq¢, op cit, 1:215; al-D£l¡b¢, op cit, pp. 46; Ibn al-Ath¢r, al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:39.

[16] Ibn al-Ath¢r, Usd al-Gh¡bah 5:434; °alab¢, op cit, 1:224; `Asqal¡n¢, al-I¥¡bah f¢ Tamy¢z al-¯a¦¡bah 4:281; Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Is¢`¡b 4:279.

[17] °alab¢, op cit, 1:224.

[18] Her previous husbands were `Utayq ibn `ª’idh and Ab£-H¡lah Hind ibn Nabb¡sh. See Ibn al-Ath¢r, Usd al-Gh¡bah 5:434; Ibn °ajar, op cit, pp. 281; Ibn `Abd al-Barr, op cit, pp. 280; °alab¢, op cit, 1:229; Kharg£sh¢, Sharaf Al-Nab¢, pp. 201; `Abd al-Q¡dir Badr¡n, Tahdh¢b T¡r¢kh Dimashq 1:302.

According to some documents, Lady Khad¢jah had never married before the Holy Prophet who, accordingly, was her first and last husband. Some contemporary experts emphasize this point. Murta¤¡ al-`ªmil¢, al-¯a¦¢¦ min S¢rat al-Nab¢ al-A`¨am 1:121.

[19] Ibn Sa`d, op cit, al-Bayhaq¢, op cit, pp. 215; ±abar¢, op cit, 2:197; °alab¢, op cit, Ibn al-Ath¢r, op cit, Ibn al-Ath¢r, al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:40.

[20] al-Majlis¢, Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r 16:22.

[21] al-Majlis¢, op cit, pp. 20-21; Ibn Hush¡m, op cit, 1:203; Ibn Shahr¡sh£b, Man¡qib 1:41.

[22] al-Majlis¢, op cit, pp. 21-23.

[23] Ibn Is¦¡q, op cit, pp. 82; al-Bul¡dhar¢, Ans¡b al-Ashr¡f 1:98; T¡r¢kh al-Ya`q£b¢ 2:16; Ibn al-Ath¢r, al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:40; D£l¡b¢; op cit, pp. 46; °alab¢, op cit, pp. 227; al-Majlis¢, op cit, 16:19.

[24] al-Bul¡dhar¢, op cit, pp. 98; Ibn Sa`d, op cit, 1:132; ±abar¢, op cit, 2:196: °alab¢, op cit, pp. 228; Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Is¢`¡b 4:280; Ibn al-Ath¢r, Usd al-Gh¡bah 5:435; al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:39.

Regarding Lady Khad¢jah’s age, there are various statements and records. See Am¢r Muhann¡ al-Khayy¡m¢, Zawj¡t al-Nab¢ wa-Awl¡duh£, pp. 53-54.

[25] Ibn Hush¡m, op cit, 1:201; D£l¡b¢, op cit, pp. 49; al-Bayhaq¢, op cit, 1:216; Kharg£sh¢, op cit, pp. 201; `Abd al-Q¡dir Badr¡n, Tahdh¢b T¡r¢kh Dimashq 1:302; Ibn al-Ath¢r, Usd al-Gh¡bah 5:434.

0% (نفر 0)
نظر شما در مورد این مطلب ؟
امتیاز شما به این مطلب ؟
اشتراک گذاری در شبکه های اجتماعی:

latest article

The War of °unayn
The Historical Speech of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in Ghadir Khum
A Great Sacrifice
Christian Zionist Messianism: How It Views Islam and Muslimsa
Khak E Shifa
Dream of Ummul Fadl
The Sahabah in Islam-2
Ziyad attributed to Abu Sufiyan

user comment