There is unanimity among all researchers and investigating scholars that invention in riwayah and composition of hadith with ascribing it to the Messenger of Allah (upon whom be God’s peace and benediction) started during the days of the caliphate of Uthman, after the insurrection that ended with his death. Invention became more intense and increased after swearing allegiance to Ali. As soon as Muslims acknowledged him as the competent ruler, the Umayyad devil began hatching the plot after another to seize caliphate from its true owner and rendering it to an Umayyad sovereignty! And that came true, Alas!
Al-Ustadh al-Imam Muhammad Abduh (may God’s mercy be upon him) in his Muqaddimat on Risalat al-Tawhid, referred to the great sedition by saying: “This sedition led to the decline of a significant cornerstone of the temple of caliphate, causing to Islam and Muslims a shock that dislodged them from the straight path they have trodden steadily, and on whose course the Qur’an remained established.” Then he wrote an accurate sincere statement declaring: “After that the sequence of events continued with breaching the covenant by some of those who swore allegiance to the Fourth Caliph,194 and eruption of several wars among the Muslims that led to the shifting of power to the Umayyads! But the structure of the company was split, and bonds of their unity were severed, with people being divided into several schools of thought regarding caliphate, and parties embarking on supporting the opinion of some school against that of its opponent, verbally and practically. Then originated the invention in narration and interpretation, with every sect going to the extremes, leading then to disagreement and disunity among people195...etc.
194. Talhah and al-Zubayr were the first people who breached the swear of allegiance (bay'ah), supported by A'ishah, because of the malice and grudge they harboured against Ali (A). These two were - as is known - among the ten men whom the Prophet (S) augured with paradise.
195. Risalat al-Tawhid, 1st edition, pp.7, 8.