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Announcement of Disavowal and Warning

Announcement of Disavowal and Warning

On the tenth of Dhu’l-°ijjah, Imam `Al¢ entered Mecca and recited S£rah al-Tawbah to the public.[1] He then informed everyone of the Holy Prophet's warning:

(1) God and His Apostle dislike the unbelievers.

(2) No unbeliever is allowed to perform the °ajj from next year on.

(3) Nobody is allowed to circumambulate the Kaaba with naked body.[2]

(4) For the coming four months, the unbelievers are allowed to return to their native lands. After the expiration of these four months, there will not be any truce for any unbeliever except those who are in contract with the Holy Prophet. Their treaties are valid up to their deadlines.

(5) No infidel shall enter Paradise.[3]

Following this warning, the infidels blamed themselves, saying, “Now that Quraysh have converted to Islam, what shall we do?” So, they had to embrace Islam[4].

From that year on, no infidel performed the °ajj ceremonies; and no one did so naked.[5]

Mutual Cursing with the Najr¡n Christians

Parallel to correspondence with the governors of the world, the Holy Prophet wrote a letter to the bishop of Najr¡n.[6] Praising the God of Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob, the Holy Prophet asked the bishop and his followers to stop worshiping people, start worshiping God, leave allegiance to people and accept loyalty and allegiance of God; lest they should pay a special tax or be prepared for a war.[7]

According to some narrations, the Holy Prophet mentioned the following holy verse in his letter:

 Say: O followers of the Book! come to an equitable proposition between us and you that we shall not serve any but Allah and (that) we shall not associate aught with Him, and (that) some of us shall not take others for lords besides Allah; but if they turn back, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims. (3/64)[8]

Receiving the letter, the Bishop convened a session with religious personalities to discuss the issue, since the Christian scholars had known some prophesized features of the Holy Prophet. They therefore decided to send a convoy to Medina in order to meet the Holy Prophet and study his character.

Upon their arrival in Medina, headed by three religious personalities including the bishop himself, the Holy Prophet met them and invited them to Islam. He recited some verses of the Holy Qur'¡n. The envoy replied, “We have been Muslims before you.” The Holy Prophet said, “You are liars. There are three things which hinder you from being Muslims: you worship the Cross, eat pork, and assign a child for God.”

Then, the topic of Jesus being God or God's servant started. Relying on the miracles of Jesus Christ, such as giving life to the dead, knowing the unseen, healing the diseased, and, especially, being born with no father, Christians considered him God. The Holy Prophet insisted that Jesus was a human being—a fact that the Christians could not accept, entering into lots of discussions. Then, the Holy Prophet received this revelation:

Most certainly, they disbelieve who say: Surely, Allah - He is the Messiah, son of Marium. (5:17)

Surely, the likeness of Jesus with Allah is as the likeness of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him, Be, and he was. This is the truth from your lord, so be not of the disputers. (3:60)

But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: come to us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars. (3:61)

After the revelation of these verses, the Holy Prophet said, “God has ordered me to do mutual cursing with you if you do not become Muslims.”[9] They replied, “We have to think about it.” Then, they went back and started counseling. The bishop warned them that Mu¦ammad was God's Messenger and that to accept mutual cursing with him would bring about chastisement of God for them. However, they did not agree; rather, they insisted on mutual cursing (Mub¡halah). They decided that the next day would be the date of Mub¡halah. Then, the bishop said, “Look and wait to see how Mu¦ammad attends the session; avoid taking part in it if he accompany his family members with him, because this means that he believes in what he says or else he would not endanger the lives of his near relatives. However, if he comes with his followers, then take part and you will know that his claims are baseless.”[10]

The following day, the Holy Prophet came with `Al¢, F¡§imah, °asan, and °usayn.[11] Looking at the Holy Prophet's company, the bishop asked, “Who are these?” He was told, “This is his cousin, the woman is his daughter and these two are her sons.”[12] The bishop told his followers, “These are persons who if they ask God to cut a mountain, the mountain shall certainly be cut off. Do not enter in it lest you will be destroyed and there will remain no Christian on the earth.” The group dispensed with the mutual cursing[13] and, on terms of a treaty, they had to pay tax.[14]

[1] This event, with some variations, has appeared in the following reference books: T¡r¢kh al-Umam wa’l-Mul£k 3:154; S¢rat Ibn Hush¡m 4:190; al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:291, Majma` al-Bay¡n 5:3; Tadhkirat al-Khaw¡¥, pp. 57; al-Bid¡yah wa’l-Nih¡yah 537-38 and 7:358; R£¦ al-Ma`¡n¢; Tafs¢r al-Man¡r 10:157.

[2] Circumambulating the Kaaba with naked body was one of the signs of the religious corruptions of the infidels. It had its roots in Quraysh’s control over the Kaaba.

[3] The content of the Holy Prophet's warning, with some alterations, appears in the following reference books: S¢rat Ibn Hush¡m 4:191; Al-M¢z¡n f¢ Tafs¢r al-Qur’¡n 9:163, 165; Tafs¢r al-Man¡r 10:157; al-Bid¡yah wa’l-Nih¡yah 7:358, al-Ghad¢r 6:343, 348.

[4] ±abar¢, T¡r¢kh al-Umam wa’l-Mul£k 3:154; Ibn al-Ath¢r, al-K¡mil f¢’l-T¡r¢kh 2:291.

[5] Ibn Hush¡m, al-S¢rah al-Nabawiyyah 4:191; Ibn al-Ath¢r, al-Bid¡yah wa’l-Nih¡yah 5:37.

[6] Najr¡n is one of the Yemenite centers next to Mecca. (al-°amaw¢, Mu`jam al-Buld¡n 5:266).

Ab£’l-Fid¡ (672-732 AH) in, Taqw¢m al-Buld¡n, pp. 127 writes: “Najr¡n is a small town with palm-groves; the distance between Mecca and Najr¡n is about a twenty-day journey.” This town might have developed in the following centuries, because Zayn¢ Da¦l¡n (1231-1304 AH) writes: “Najr¡n is a large city, near Mecca, on the way to Yemen, consisting of seventy three villages.” (al-S¢rah al-Nabawiyyah 2:144). As the maps of Saudi Arabia shows, Najr¡n is now one of the cities of that country, near the boarders with the Yemen.

[7] Ibn W¡¤i¦, T¡r¢kh al-Ya`q£b¢ 2:70-71; al-Bid¡yah wa’l-Nih¡yah 5:53; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r 2:285; al-Wath¡’iq, pp. 34; `Al¢ A¦madi, Mak¡t¢b al-Ras£l 1:175.

[8] Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s, Iqb¡l al-A`m¡l 2:311.

[9] °alab¢, al-S¢rah al-°alabiyyah 3:235-236; Zayn¢ Da¦l¡n, al-S¢rah al-Nabawiyyah 2:144; al-Majlis¢, Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r 21:347. `All¡mah al-Majlis¢ has gathered all reports and narrations about the Holy Prophet’s discussions with the missionary of Najr¡n in volume 21 of Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, pp. 319-355.

[10] ±abars¢, I`l¡m al-War¡, pp. 129; Majma` al-Bay¡n 2:452; al-Majlis¢, Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r 21:337.

[11] °alab¢, al-S¢rah al-°alabiyyah 3:236; Zayn¢ Da¦l¡n, al-S¢rah al-Nabawiyyah wa’l-ªth¡r al-Mu¦ammadiyyah 2:144.

[12] Ibn W¡¤i¦, T¡r¢kh al-Ya`q£b¢ 2:72; ±abars¢, I`l¡m al-War¡, pp. 129.

[13] °alab¢, op cit; Zayn¢ Da¦l¡n, op cit; Zamakhshar¢, Tafs¢r al-Kashsh¡f 1:193; al-Fakhr al-R¡z¢, Maf¡t¢¦ al-Ghayb 8:82; Sayyid Mu¦ammad ±ab¡§ab¡’¢, al-M¢z¡n f¢ Tafs¢r al-Qur’¡n 3:231; al-Bay¤¡w¢, Anw¡r al-Tanz¢l, pp. 74.

[14] See T¡r¢kh al-Ya`q£b¢ 2:72; Al-±abaq¡t al-Kubr¡ 2:358, Fut£¦ al-Buld¡n, pp. 75-76; al-Wath¡’iq, pp. 134-135; al-S¢rah al-Nabawiyyah wa’l-ªth¡r al-Mu¦ammadiyyah 2:144; al-S¢rah al-°alabiyyah 3:236; Tafs¢r al-Kashsh¡f 1:191; Maf¡t¢¦ al-Ghayb 8:182; Al-M¢z¡n 3:232.

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