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The Role of the Movement of Ashura in the

The Role of the Movement of Ashura in the
Continuity of the Islamic Revolution

Akbar Abediyan

If we meticulously do research on the Ashura, we will learn about the role of the Ashura in the perpetuation of the Islamic Revolution.
The revolt of Abu'Abd Allah has a special splendor when compared with the sacrifices of other great men. The impressive luminescence of this epic is rooted in the holy blood of Abu'Abd Allah(A) which will remain forever like the red sunrise in the world, inspiring all the free men and women.
His revolt teaches the following lessons:

1.The preference of a bloody death over a life of shame,
2. The eventual victory of truth over falsehood,
3. That greatness of man is earned through suffering.

•These lessons are replicated in the Islamic Revolution. The following are the mainfestations of the lessons provided by the example of Ashura:
• The great leadership, provided by the progeny of Imam Husayn (A), the late Imam Khomeini (R),
• The people of Iran and the leadership of Imam Khomeini modeled the revolution after the revolt of Imam Husayn (A) and his companions,
• The revolutionary resolve and the unity as shown by the people.

The Movement of Ashura in the Eyes of the Ahl al-Sunnah

Abdul Karim Abdullahi

The Ahl al-Sunnah have narrated a large number of traditions relating to the great station of Imam Husayn (A) and the Prophet's (S) itrah (family). They also consider some verses of the Qur'an to have been revealed in the context of their station. Among the traditions narrated is the tradition (Husayn is from me and I am from him), as well as the traditions narrated by way of exegesis of the verses of Mubahalah, Tat-heer and Mawaddah.
In the traditions of the Aid al-Sunnah, a large number of traditions -which from the point of view of their contents are nuuawatir-e-n2anawi- have been narrated from the Prophet (S) forecasting the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (A) at Karbala and the incumberence of helping him. In their history books too the factors and causes which existed at the time of Mu'awiyah and Yazid and led to the Revolution of Karbala are also mentioned and the true nature of such governments has been clearly exposed. By way of example, the nature of Mu'awiyah's belief and his love for power, and the obvious debauchery and lechery of Yazid, can be mentioned, and this led to some muftis and Ulama of Ahl al-Sunnah, like Alusi, Taftazani, Shawkani, etc. to issue an edict proclaiming Yazid a kafir.
In these books the sermons of Imam Husain (A) concerning the need for a revolution and the causes behind the holy uprising of Ashura are mentioned and the objectives of this struggle are alluded to. The letters and messages of Imam Husayn (A) also Comprise a part of these books.
In the part on the effects and consequences of the Movement of Ashura the Ahl al-Sunnah point out to certain interesting instances. Among them are: The necessity of confronting a sinful ruler, the highlighting of the detestable and ugly nature of the Umayyads, the prevalence of a general abhorrence of Yazid's rule, and the occurrence of revolts and uprisings against the Umayyad rule e.g. the revolt of the people of Madinah. Mukhtar's uprising and the revolution of Zayd ibn Ali (A).

The Political, Social and Educational Effects of the Revolution of Abu 'Abd Allah (A)

Abdur-Rahim Aqiqi-Bakhshayeshi

The political, social and educational effects of the revolt of the Imam Husayn (A) and his sincere and selfless companions are so many that it seems impossible to delve into all aspects of all of these effects.
The analysis of the movement of Ashura is significant from two points of view:
1. From a historical standpoint, considering the effects of history on the movement itself.
2. From an educational standpoint, taking into account the fact that it can have heuristic value, teaching lessons of human perfection.
This paper focuses on the second point of view.
The effects which can be studied, from the second point of view are:
1. The struggle against intellectual and ideological deviation: which seems to be the most important and the most fundamental reason for the revolt staged by Imam Husayn (A)
2. Safeguarding the divine values such as self-sacrifice (Ithaar), sacrifice, and martyrdom to the point that it will lead to the survival of Islam.
3. Rejection of the tyrants who have occupied the seats of power that belong to the men of God. The basic premise here is that it is the exclusive right of men of God to occupy the seat of government as well as to legislate and execute the laws.
4. Freedom of spirit: Imam Husayn's immortal statement, 'Never shall we (he made to accept) disgrace!" is a lesson to all humanity.
5. Fighting against injustice and struggling for the cause of justice because injustice and tyranny are against the rules of creation and rules of religion.
6. The establishment of the Islamic Government: The establishment of the Islamic government is the only way to prevent the occurrence of oppression and aggression and also the only way to provide a principled support to Islam and its teachings and to formalize religious and divine rites. The establishment of the Islamic government also helps train the human resources on the basis of Islam and divine rules and regulations. Imam Husayn (A) chose Kufa as the place where he could form the nucleus of his government. He made this decision after taking into account numerous letters of invitation sent to him by the people of Kufa, after reading the documented reports of Moslem Ibn Aqil and counting on the special place of his father, Imam All (A), who ruled over Kufa and Iraq.
There are other effects of this revolt such as the rights of man and the fact that the revolt became a source of inspiration for other revolts that occurred after Ashura.

The Best Methods for Preaching and Explaining the Movement of Ashura and the Ashuraesque Teachings of Imam Khomeini (R)

Majid Amini

Propagation, is the essence of all the religions and the responsibility shouldered by all the divine prophets. In Islam, considering its permanent mission, the propagation must be universal. If the living truth and the noble teaching of this immortal religion are not properly propagated, not only the religion is abandoned, but mankind, too, suffers. The very men who have the potential to grow and blossom, are bogged down in their earthly ignorance and passion, enchained by their pride and sent on the downward spiral to lowliness and misery.
In this regard, we must focus on such issues as the history of propagation, the elements of propagation, propagation in the divine religions, the knowledge of propagation and the tools for propagation in Islam.
To day's world is the world of communication and the media. But the main problem of man in our time is that he does not find meaning, goal and faith in his life. He is deprived of a moral-ethical system based on reason, Revelation (wahy), and his innate nature (Fitrah). One must address these deficiencies, keeping in mind the goals that the prophets had. One such case is the glorious revolt and the movement called Ashura.
In dealing with these events -especially the events whose agents are the infallible members of Prophet Muhammad's Household (Ma'sumin)- one should view them from two angles, One is the divine angle and the other the historical angle. At any rate, one of the issues that we need to discuss is the effect of this uprising in the movement of Imam Khomeini (R). One should be cognizant of the fact that Imam Khomeini (R), as the pioneer of the bloody epic of an Ashuraic movement in the contemporary age, stressed the role of mourning and weeping as the political initiative.
Propagation keeps Muharram, and by extension the goals of the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (A), alive. This in turn safeguards Islam. Imam Khomeini (R) used to stress some of the lessons of the revolt by Imam Husayn (A). Among them he used to stress the duty to do what is incumbent upon the believer to do, which is the most important aspect of the revolt by Abu 'Abd Allah (A).

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