Monday 4th of March 2024
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Events After the Migration of the Prophet P.B.U.H

1. The Prophet's Migration (Hijrah)

2. Important events After the Immigration

3. Two Great Distinctions of Ali

4. Another Distinction of Ali

5. The Battle of Badr

6. The Battle of Uhud

7. The Battle of Khandaq

8. Battle With The Jews The Battle of Khaybar

9. Inviting The Rulers And Kings To Islam

10. The Battle of Hunayn

11. The Battle of Tabuk

12. Other Battles

13. Ghadir Khumm And The Issue of Succession

14. The Farewell Haj

15. Ali Returns From Yemen To Partake In Haj Ceremonies

16. Haj Ceremonies Begin

17. The Historical Sermon of The Prophet At The Time of The Farewell Haj

18. Islam Is Completed By The Appointmentof Successor

19. Prophethood And Imamate Were Inter-Related

20. Sermon Of The Prophet At Ghadir Khumm

21. The Authentic Sources of The Hadith Ghadir

22. The Impostors And Apprehensions of Rome

23. A Short Biography of Musaylimah

24. Apprehension of Rome

25. A Lame Excuse

26. Seeking Forgiveness For Those Buried In Baqi

27. A Will Which Was Not Written

28. Bring A Pen And An Ink-pot So ThatI May Write A Will

29. What Did The Will Aim At?

30. Why Did The Prophet Not Persist

31. Making Amends For The Matter

The Prophet's Migration (Hijrah)

Till the thirteenth year of his mission, the Prophet (S.A.) called the people in Mecca to Islam, and stood firm when faced with the persecutions of the Quraysh. Eventually he got to know that the Quraysh had hatched an incredible plot to kill him, so he put Hazrat 'Ali (A.S.) to sleep in his bed in his place and left Mecca at night; he hid in a cave, and then migrated from there to Medina. The hijrah of the Prophet opened an entirely new chapter in the history of Islam from which a stimulating and surprising leap forward was made. For this very reason, the hijrah of Muhammad (S.A.) became the beginning of the dating system of the Muslims. With the presence of the Prophet of Islam (S.A.) in Medina, the tribes of Aws and Khazraj became bothers for life in the shadow of the teachings of Islam, and a blessed sincerity and cordiality was established between them.

The example of Muhammad's behavior, his spiritual and moral superiority, and the naturalness of his pure religion, caused the people to come to Islam by the score, and in the end to accept it. The Prophet of Islam (S.A .) was from the people and with the people, and did not maintain a distance from them. He shared with them in their gains and losses. He firmly criticised oppression and aggression, and refrained from and prevented them. He set forth all the principles which were, in the light of Islam, effective for the development of the position of women, and put an end to the tyranny they had been subjected to previous to Islam, but he also vehemently fought against their unchastity and licentiousness, for he wanted them to attain their real development on the basis of the true principles of Islam. He defended the rights of slaves, and had broad comprehensive programmes for their freedom. The Prophet of Islam created a society where black and white, rich and poor, great and small, were all equal and could enjoy the benefits of being human beings. In such an atmosphere, there could be no question of 'racial discrimination', for there was a much higher basis in virtue, knowledge, piety, human values and ethical greatness.

Let us look at a clear example of the great teachings of the Prophet (S.A.): Juwayber was a young man, poor and rather ugly. He came to Medina with a great enthusiasm for Islam, and accepted it. The Prophet gave him a place in the mosque, and later in a "Saqifah", a garden which was under the control of the Prophet, and made him its overseer. One day the Prophet told him: "It is good for a man to take to himself a woman, and to choose a wife, so that he may keep his chastity and have a home-life."

"May God bless you, but I am poor and ugly; in what woman could there be such a desire that she would take me as her husband, especially as I am not from a noble family?"

"Juwaybar, with the coming of Islam all the nobility of the age of ignorance (before Islam) has been broken down together with all the standards of greatness and have been melted together. Black and white, Arab and non-Arab have all come from Adam, and God made Adam from the earth. "For this reason today there is no black and white, nor ven any results from imperfection or excess in something. "The dearest person to God is the most virtuous person. "Now go to the house of Ziyad and ask for his daughter, Dhalfa' on my behalf." Juwaybar did what the Prophet had told him, but Ziyad, who was one of the nobles of the Ansar group, did not accept, and said, "We only give our daughters to people like ourselves and the Prophet himself knows that very well; so go back till I have consulted with him and give my apologies myself." He turned to go back, but because of his anger he cried out, "I swear by God, neither the Qur'an nor the Prophet have said that one must give one's daughter to someone who is of equal status in family and in wealth!" Dhulfa' heard the voice of Juwaybar, and sent someone to her father. He came to her and she asked him, "What have you said to that young man that has made him angry?"

"The Prophet sent him to me to take you, my daughter, with my agreement."

"Juwaybar would not tell a lie; send him back and go yourself to the Prophet so that he may clarify the matter for you." Ziyad did what his daughter had said. He sent Juwaybar back, and himself hurried to the Prophet and said, "Juwayber brought a message from you. I want to remind you that I am an Ansari, and that we do not give our daughters in marriage except Io men of equal status from the same tribe." "Juwaybar is a believer and a man of faith, and a man with faith is the equal of a woman with faith. Give him your daughter as a wife." Ziyad then returned home and told his daughter what the Prophet had commanded. The daughter said, "Father! to disobey the Prophet's command is against the religion. And I am ready of my own accord, so accept Juwaybar as your son-in-law! " Ziyad brought Juwaybar in front of the people of his tribe and gave him in marriage to his daughter on the basis of the command of Islam. He even gave the dowry to his daughter from his own pocket, and gave them a house with all necessities so that they would live happily. Truly, this light was dazzling; this source or warmth-giving radiance lit up a flame in every heart that was a guide to all pure hearts on the path. And thus it was that the muddled souls of the people were led forth from the harassment of the gloom and darkness of that time, like moths who wing their way towards the brilliant flame, and turned in their hundreds towards Islam, seeking the protection of the illustrious, illuminating system of the Qur'an. ( The Roots of Religion, p. 120-123 )

* * *

Important events after the Immigration

The centralization of Muslims in Medina opened a new chapter is the life of the Prophet. Before his arrival there he had been engaged in attracting the hearts and in propagating his religion, but from that day onwards it was necessary that he should protect his own existence as well as that of his followers like an experienced statesman and should not permit the internal and external enemies to penetrate into the Muslim society. At this juncture he was faced with three main difficulties:

1. Danger from Quraysh and other idol-worshippers of the Arabian Peninsula.

2. The Jews of Yathrib who lived within and outside the city and possessed enormous wealth and resources.

3. The differences which existed between his own supporters. As the Muhajirs and the Ansar had been brought up in two different environments there was a vast difference between their ways of thinking and culture.

And then there were the two components of Ansar (viz. Bani Aws and Bani Khazraj) who had been fighting for one hundred and twenty years and were the sworn enemies of each other. With all these dangers and differences there was no possibility of their continuing to lead a peaceful religious and political life. However, the Prophet overcame these difficulties in a perfectly wise manner. As regards the first two problems he took measures the details of which will be recorded later, and as regards the differences between his followers he removed them with perfect wisdom and ingenuity. He was ordered by Allah to establish brotherhood between the Muhajirs and the Ansar. One day he turned to his followers in a general meeting and said "Now you should become brothers in faith in pairs". The particulars of persons who became brothers of each other have been recorded by the Muslim historians including Ibn Hisham.(1) Hence, by this method the Prophet ensured the political and spiritual unity of the Muslims and this unity enabled. him to think about ways and means of solving the other two difficulties as well.

* * *


Most of the Shi'ah and Sunni historians and traditionalists have mentioned two great distinctions of Ali which we record here briefly: The Prophet established brotherhood between a pair of two among three hundred persons out of the Muhajirs and Ansar and told every one of them that he was the brother of such and such person. When the establishment of brotherhood was completed Ali, with tears in his eyes, said to the Prophet: "You have established brotherhood amongst your companions but have not made me the brother of anyone". Thereupon the Prophet turned to Ali and said: "You are my brother in this world as well as in the Hereafter". Qandozi has quoted this incident in a more comprehensive manner and says that the Prophet replied to Ali "By the Almighty (who has appointed me to guide the people) I postponed the question of your brotherhood for the reason that I desired to become your brother when brotherhood among all others had been completed. Your position vis-a-vis myself is similar to that of Harun and Musa, except that there will be no Prophet after me. You are my brother and my successor.(2) Ibn Kathir has, however, doubted the authenticity of this incident.(3) But as his doubts are the product of his special mentality and are nothing short of the apology which he has tendered on behalf of Mu'awiyah and his supporters, we refrain from quoting his remarks and refuting them.

* * *

Another Distinction Of Ali

The construction of the mosque was completed. Around the mosque there were the houses of the Prophet and his companions. There were also the houses whose doors opened into the mosque, and whose inmates entered the mosque through those doors. Suddenly an order was received from Allah that all the doors which opened into the mosque, except the door of the house of Ali, should be closed. Thereupon some persons became fussy about the matter and thought that this exception had been made on sentimental grounds. In order to enlighten the people on the subject the prophet delivered a sermon and said inter alia: "I have not given orders about the closing or otherwise of the doors on my own account. In fact it was an order from Allah and I had no alternative but to implement it". (Ayatullah Jafar Subhani, The Message, p.337-339)

* * *

The Battle Of Badr

The first battle between the Muslims and the unbelievers of Makkah took place at Badr (a valley between Makkah and Medina) in the second year of the Hijrah. In this battle, the number of fully equipped unbelievers was about one thousand. The Muslims were about one-third of them and lacked all necessary war equipment, but divine dispensation afforded the Muslims a bright victory and defeated the unbelievers in the worst possible way. Suffering heavy casualties and many captives and losing their entire stock of equipment in this battle, the mushrikin (polytheists) ran away to Makkah. It is said that in this battle, seventy unbelievers were killed, out of which almost half of them were killed by the sword of ‘Ali (AS). Also seventy people from the unbelievers were taken as captives.

* * *

The Battle Of Uhud

In the third year of Hijrah, the unbelievers of Makkah, led by Abu Sufyan again rushed towards Medina with three thousand men (and according to one narration with five thousand men). They confronted the Muslims at Uhud out- side Medina. In this battle, the Holy Prophet (SA) arrayed seven hundred Muslims to face the enemy. In the beginning of the battle, the Muslims had the upper hand again, but after a few hours due to the mistake of some Muslims, the army of Islam was defeated. At this time, the unbelievers attacked from all sides and the Muslims suddenly found themselves surrounded on all sides by the swords of unbelievers. In the battle, the Muslims sustained heavy losses. Hamzah, the uncle of the Holy Prophet (SA), along with seventy other disciples of the Holy Prophet (SA) who were mostly Ansar, were martyred. The forehead of the Holy Prophet (SA) was wounded and one of his front teeth broke. One of the unbelievers who inflicted a blow on the Holy Prophet's (SA) shoulder shouted: "I killed Muhammad". Hearing this, the army of Islam disposed. Only ‘Ali (AS), along with a few men, remained steadfastly near the Holy Prophet (SA). All these were killed but ‘Al; (AS) resisted the enemy until the end of the battle and defended the Holy Prophet (SA). On the last day, those who had fled away from the army of Islam gathered around the Holy Prophet (SA) once more and prepared for battle.

But the army of Abi Sufyan, however, considered only that much success as enough, stopped fighting, and set out for Medina. After traveling a few kilometers, the army of the unbelievers seriously regretted why they had not pursued the battle to final victory and why they had not taken Muslims' women and children as captives, and plundered their proper- ties. They even got busy with consultation to attack Medina once again, but received the information that the information that the army of Islam was following them to continue the battle. Having received this information, the unbelievers became intimidated, gave up the idea of returning to Medina, and hastily set out for Makkah. Surely what they had heard was true, because the Holy Prophet (s.a.), by the order of Allah, had mobilized an army from the injured who were led by ‘Ali (A.S) to follow the enemy. Although the Muslims sustained heavy casualties in this battle, in fact, it finished to the advantage of Islam and Muslims.

The Muslims drew a more important conclusion out of this battle and experienced the inauspicious consequence of violating the order of the Holy Prophet (s.a.). Having given up the battle, both the confronting sides promised to fight another battle in Badr next year at the same time. The Holy Prophet (s.a.), with a group of his disciples, went to Badr on time, but the unbelievers refrained from coming. After this battle, the Muslims became very well pre- pared and made advancement on all sides in the peninsula except in the region of Makkah and Ta'if.

* * *

The Battle Of Khandaq

This was the third battle declared by the Arab unbelievers against the Holy Prophet (s.a.). It was also the last battle under the leadership of the people of Makkah. It was a very severe battle in which the unbelievers had fully equipped themselves with their forces and powers. In the history, this battle is known as the "Battle of Ahzab" and "Khandaq". After the battle of Uhud, the leaders of Makkah, led by Abu Sufyan, decided to inflict the final blow upon the Holy Prophet (s.a.) to put off the light of Islam for good. To this end, they instigated the Arab tribes and asked for their cooperation and assistance. In spite of the non-aggression treaty signed by the Jews and Muslims, the Jewish people also had secretly involved themselves with the plot and violated the treaty and signed a cooperation agreement with the unbelievers.

Thus, in the fifth year of Hijrah, a fully mobilized army comprising of Quraysh, various Arab tribes, and Jewish people rushed to Medina totally equipped. Having come to know of the intention of the enemy beforehand, the Holy Prophet (s.a.) consulted his disciples over the matter. After a long discussion, they dug a trench all around the city of Medina according to the proposal of Salman al-farisi who was an intimate Companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.). They then got fortified within the city. After reaching Medina, the army of the enemy found no way to enter the city. They inevitably besieged the city and started the battle in that position. The siege and battle continued for sometime. It was in this battle only that ‘Amr ibn 'Abdwudd, a most renowned equestrian and a most famous brave man of Arabia, was killed by the powerful hands of ‘Ali (A.S). Finally, as a result of wind, cold, the fatigue of the Arab idolaters from the extended duration of the siege, and the difference and separation between the Jews and Arabs, the siege got broken without any result; thus the army of the unbelievers dispersed from around Medina.

* * *

Battle With The Jews The Battle Of Khaybar

After the Battle of Khandaq, originally provoked by the Jews who cooperated with the Arab unbelievers and who had openly breached their treaty with Muslims, the Holy Prophet (s.a.) proceeded to punish the Jewish tribes in Medina by the order of Allah. He fought several battles, all of which ended in the victory and triumph of Muslims. The most important of these battles was the Battle of Khaybar. The Jews of Khaybar had several fortifications in hand and a considerable number of belligerents with adequate equipment at their disposal. In this battle, ‘Ali (A.S) killed Marhab of Khaybar, the well-known hero of the Jews, and dispersed the Jewish army. Afterwards, he rushed to the Fort of Khaybar, unhinged its door, and entered the fort along with the army of Islam. He then hoisted the banner of victory on its top. With these very battles which ended in the fifth year of Hijrah, the problem of the Jews of Hijaz came to an end.

* * *

Inviting The Rulers And Kings To Islam

The Holy Prophet (s.a.) settled in Medina. Gradually, a great number of the Muslims of Makkah, who were under the torture by the unbelievers, relinquished their homes and belongings and migrated to Medina. Ansar also kept their promise and received them wholeheartedly. The Holy Prophet (s.a.) constructed Masjid al-Nabi at Medina. Other mosques were also built. Missionaries of Islam were sent to the outskirts and treaties were signed with Jewish tribes of Medina and its suburbs and also with some Arab tribes. Thus Islam began to flourish with its enormous luminosity. In the 6th year of the Hijrah, the

Holy Prophet (SA) sent letters to the rules and kings such as the King of Iran, Qaysar (Caesar) of Rome, Khedive of Egypt, and Al-Najash; (Nevus) of Ethiopia and invited them to embrace Islam. After some time, the unbelievers of Makkah breached the treaty and, as a result of this, the Holy Prophet (SA) decided to conquer Makkah. In the 8th year of the Hijrah, the Holy Prophet (SA) rushed to Makkah with ten thousand soldiers and conquered Makkah without any fighting and bloodshed. He also toppled and broke many idols placed in Ka'bah. People of Makkah accepted Islam. The Holy Prophet (SA) summoned all the leaders of Makkah, who had in the last 20 years shown their animosity and behaved inhumanely with him and his followers, and pardoned them all with utmost magnanimity and without showing the slightest harshness and moroseness.

source : http://www.maaref-foundation.com
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