When Hadrat Fatima Masoumah (A.S.) was buried in Qum there was a shade made of straw on the holy grave built by Musa bin Khajraj. The first dome which was in the form of a tower, was built by Hadrat Zainab (A.S.), the daughter of Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.) in the middle of third century hijrah. Stone, bricks and stucco were used as construction material for this dome.
With the burial of the ladies from the Holy Ahlul Bayt (A.S.) beside the grave of Hadrat Fatima Masoumah (A.S.) during later period two other domes were constructed beside the already existing dome.
These three domes were existing till the year 447 A.H., when during that year Mir Abul Fazl Iraqi, the minister of Tughril the Great, at the insistence of Shaykh Toosi (R.A.) constructed a big dome without a balcony or chamber, in the place of the three existing domes which totally covered all the graves of all the divine ladies buried in that place. This dome was decorated by colourful bricks and tiles.
In the year 925 A.H., this dome was decorated and renovated with glazed tiles by the orders of Shah Baigi Begum, the daughter of Shah Ismail Safavi. A towering balcony with two minarets was constructed in the Atiq courtyard.
In the year 1218 A.H., Fath Ali Shah Qajar decorated the dome with golden tiles. In the year 2000 these golden tiles were removed from the dome to carry out the major repairs in the dome by the orders of the reverend custodian of the holy shrine Hadrat Ayatullah Masoodi Khomeini. After completing the major repairs in the dome the golden tiles are being once again fixed on the dome. This grand project"s cost is more than 25 billions Iranian Rials.
fatimah masoomah (a.s.) similar to hadrat fatimah (a.s.)
The Holy Grave of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.)
In the year 605 A.S., Ameer Muzaffar Ahmad bin Ismail, the doyen of the Aal Muzaffar family ordered the master craftsman Muhammad bin Abu Taher Qummi, to make variegated glazed tiles for the holy grave of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.). After eight years of incessant endeavour the master craftsman completed constructing the beautiful tiles for the grave of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.) and in the year 613 A.H. it were fixed on the holy grave.
In the year 1998, the holy grave have once again been decorated with glazed tiles and beautiful stones and the internal walls of the burial chamber were ornamented with beautiful green marble stones.
fatimah masoomah (a.s.) similar to hadrat fatimah (a.s.)
The Holy Zarih (Burial Chamber)
In the year 965 A.H., Shah Tahmasab Safavi made a Zarih (burial chamber) made of bricks which were covered with seven-colours tiles with glazed epigraphs. On all the four sides of the zarih there were openings through which the holy grave was seen and the pilgrims poured their offerings through them.
After some years Shah Tahmasab Safavi ordered for the construction of a zarih made of white and clear iron which was fixed to the zarih made of bricks.
In the year 1230 A.H., Fath Ali Shah Qajar covered that iron zarih with silver. This zarih was corroded with the lapse of time. Thus, in the year 1280 A.H., a new zarih was made of silver from the existing zarih and the silver preserved in the treasury of the holy shrine and placed on the grave.
That zarih was renovated many times and in the year 1969, a new zarih which is considered as a masterpiece of Islamic art was placed on the grave and that zarih exists till now. In the year 2001, basic renovation and repairs on the present zarih were carried out.
The Balconies in the Holy Shrine
The Golden Balcony
The golden balcony along with its two smaller balconies were constructed in the year 925 A.H., when the dome was renovated and the Atiq courtyard and its minarets were constructed. At the top of the balcony an epigraph in blue background can be found on its circumference and in this epigraph the glorious hadith:
" Those who die with the love of the Family of Muhammad (S.AW.), die like the martyrs"
After this epigraph the balcony"s two metres circumference is covered with intrinsic glazed tiles. After that, there is another epigraph on the circumference. Above it there is honeycomb network attached to the roof of the balcony which are covered with golden tiles.
The Minarets in the Holy Shrine
Atiq Courtyard"s Minarets
In the Atiq courtyard two minarets are located on the Golden (Tila) balcony. The surface of the minarets is covered by knotted tiles in zigzag form and the holy names Allah (SWT), Muhammad (S.A.W.) and Ali (A.S.)" are inscribed in between these knotted tiles.
These minarets were built on the orders of Muhammad Husain Khan Shahsavan Shihab al-Mulk in the year 1285 A.H., and its domes were covered with golden tiles in 1301 A.H.
Balasar mosque is considered as the most beautiful portico in the holy shrine where religious functions and congregational prayers are performed. During the Safavid era it was the inn of the holy shrine but during the Qajar period it was developed into a mosque with two big domes. This portico is also considered as the largest roofed building of the holy shrine.
In the year 1338 A.H., the land lying on the western side of the mosque was included in the mosque thus increasing the area of the mosque.
After the construction of the Masjid-i Azam the Balasar mosque was positioned between the holy burial chamber and the Masjid-i Azam. The old structure of the mosque was renovated completely and the present mosque was constructed. The present building of the mosque was built based on special patterns of Islamic architecture and is considered as one of the grand buildings of the holy shrine.
Tabatabai mosque has a dome placed on fifty columns. It was built in the place of the old Zenana courtyard in the southern part of the holy shrine.
The founder of this mosque which consists of a grand dome was Hojjat al-Islam Haj Agha Muhammad Tabatabai, the son of late Ayatullah Haj Agha Husain Qummi and was constructed between the years 1360-1370 A.H.
Shaheed Mutahhari Mosque
This mosque was built in the place of the former museum of the holy shrine. The building of the mosque is beautifully decorated with intrinsic tiles and most of the religious functions are held in this mosque.
These buildings which are called as mosques are mosque only in name and the laws of the mosques are not applicable to them. Thus many grand Ulama, Marajah and other people are buried in these places.
In the holy shrine the below-mentioned two places have the status of a mosque.
1. The area in front of the mihrab (niche) of Tabatabai mosque.
2. The area attached to the upper side of the burial chamber of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.).
Expansion of the Holy Shrine
In the year 1999, the scheme for the expansion of the holy shrine have been approved as a national plan by the government of Islamic Republic of Iran.In this extensive expansion project which is under implementation by the Housing Ministry two new grand courtyards and two big prayer halls and other facilities are being constructed within the precincts of the holy shrine.
The Decorum of Performing the Ziyarah of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.)
The Decorum of Performing the Ziyarah of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.) Knowing the manners and decorum of performing the ziyarah is very essential for the pilgrims so that they can attain the blessings of ziyarah of the holy personalities. Here some of the conventions and manners of performing the ziyarah in its best way are explained.
1. Before starting the pilgrimage the person should perform Ghusl (bathing).
2. To enter the holy shrine with the pure intention of imploring for forgiveness from Allah (SWT) so that the pilgrims" ziyarah is accepted by Allah (SWT).
3. To enter the holy shrine after performing Wudu (ablution) or Ghusl (bathing) with neat and clean perfumed clothing.
4. While going towards the holy shrine the pilgrim should walk with peace and dignity with concentration of mind and remembering Allah (SWT).
5. While entering the holy shrine"s precincts the pilgrim should first keep the right foot and while leaving should keep the left foot at the end of the precincts of the holy shrine.While entering the holy shrine it is highly recommended to recite the supplication to enter the holy shrine.
6. When sighting the holy grave the pilgrim should recite the salutations (salawat) on the Holy Prophet of Islam (S.A.W.) and his Pure Progeny and recite praises for Allah (SWT).
7. While reciting the ziyarah on the upper side of the holy burial chamber of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.), first face towards the Qibla and recite 34 times Allahu Akbar, 33 times Subhan Allah and 33 times Alhamdulillah. Then recite the ziyarah of Hadrat Masoumah (A.S.).
8. Then the pilgrim should keep the right and left sides of the face on the zarih and implore from Allah (SWT) for the fulfillment of lawful needs.
9. Then perform the two rakah salaat and gift its reward to Hadrat Masoumah (A.S).
10. When the A"zaan (Call to Salaat) is announced the pilgrim should first perform the salaat in jamaat (congregation).
11. The pilgrim should pray to Allah (SWT) to grant everything good and beneficial to his friends and relatives and implore to Allah (SWT) for their forgiveness. He should regularly recite the Holy Qur"an and the recommended supplications (dua) and the ziyarah narrated by the Holy Imams (A.S.) like Ziyarat-i Jameh-i Kabeer and Ziyarat-i Aminullah.
The respected pilgrims should keep the mentioned below two points in their consideration.
1. The pilgrims should avoid performing any acts which can be misused by the enemies of the religion like prostrating while seeing the zarih and the holy grave. These type of acts are against the Will of Allah (SWT) and the Holy Ahlul Bayt (A.S.) also disapprove them. It will also give excuse to the enemies of the Shi"ites to frame false and baseless allegations against them.
2. The women pilgrims should strictly observe the perfect Islamic hijab in the holy shrine and should avoid from wearing any type of indecent clothing or make up of the face which is against the norms of Islamic hijab. If women pilgrims do not observe Islamic hijab, not only the ziyarah will not be accepted but that person will suffer severe tribulation for this behaviour.
source : www.tebyan.net