1. When the Messenger of Allah (ṣ) was ordered to publicize his divine mission, he started to organize the nucleus of resistance and guidance and mobilize Muslims. Along this line, he used to meet groups of pilgrims coming from far and near to visit the Ka‘bah, inviting them to Islam. Meanwhile, he held a meeting with two groups of the people from Medina at a place called “‘Aqabah” and they pledged to invite him to their city and give him support. So, this was the first step toward establishing an Islamic government.
2. After his emigration [hijrah] to Medina, the Messenger of Allah (ṣ) started to found and organize a powerful and dignified army corps—an army that fought 82 battles during the period of the Prophet’s mission and managed, through glorious victories, to remove the hurdles and set up the Islamic government.
3. After the establishment of the Islamic government in Medina, the Prophet (ṣ) made contacts with the powerful political and social centers of his time by dispatching ambassadors, sending historic letters, and forging economic, political and military links with many leaders.
The biography of the Prophet (ṣ) contains a detailed account of his letters to Khosroe, the Emperor of Persia; Caesar, the Emperor of Byzantine; Muqauqis, the King of Egypt; Negus, the King of Abyssinia; and other rulers at that time.
4. In a bid to elevate the objectives of Islam and maximize the cohesion of the bases of the Islamic government, the Messenger of Allah (ṣ) appointed rulers and chiefs for many tribes and cities. Below is an example of his decisions in this respect:
The Holy Prophet (ṣ) dispatched Rafā‘ah ibn Zayd as his representative to the tribe of Khwaysh and wrote the following letter:
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
زيدٍ بن لرفاعة الله رسول محمّد من (كتاب هذا)
رسوله إلىٰ و الله إلىٰ يدعوهم فيهم دخل من و عامّةً قومه إلىٰ بعثته إنّى
.شهرين أمانُ فله أدبر من و رسوله حزب و الله حزب ففي منهم أقبل فمن
In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful
[This letter] is from Muḥammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Rafā‘ah ibn Zayd. I have dispatched him to his tribe and those related to them to invite them toward God and His Messenger. Whoever accepts his invitation will be among the Party of Allah and the Party of His Messenger and whoever turns away from him will have a two-month security respite.
These practices and decisions of the Prophet (ṣ) confirm that from the beginning of his mission, he had been in pursuit of setting up a strong government through which to administer the universal laws of Islam in all facets of life.