Bibi Sakina was the youngest daughter of Imaam Hussain. She was a vivacious child, full of love and happiness. Everyone loved Sakina. She was also a very religious girl. She enjoyed reading the Holy Quraan and never missed her prayers. From the age of two she took great care to make sure that her head and face were properly covered when in public.
Sakina was Imaam Hussain's most beloved child. Our Imaam was often heard to say, "A house without Sakina would not be worth living in!" She always had a sweet and cheerful smile and a very friendly nature. Other children sought her company as much as the grown ups did. She was very generous and always shared whatever she had with others.
There was a special bond between Hazrat Abbas and Sakina. He loved her more than he did his own children. If Sakina requested for anything, Abbas would not rest until he satisfied her request. There was nothing that Abbas would not do to make Sakina happy.
During the journey from Madina to Mecca and then Mecca to Kerbala, Abbas was often seen riding up to the mehmil in which Sakina sat to make sure that she had everything she wanted. Sakina loved her uncle just as much. While in Madina she would, several times a day, visit the house in which Hazrat Abbas lived with his family and his mother, Ummul Baneen.
Like any other four-five year old when Sakina went to bed at night she wanted to spend some time with her father. Imaam Hussain would tell her stories of the prophets and of the battles fought by her grand-father Ali. She would rest her head on her father's chest and Hussain would not move from her until she fell asleep. When from the second of Muharram the armies of Yezid began to gather at Kerbala, Hussain said to his sister Zainab, "The time has come for you to get Sakina used to going to sleep without my being there !". Sakina would follow her father at night and Hussain had to gently take her to Zainab or Rubaab.
?At Kerbala when from the seventh Muharram water became scarce Sakina shared whatever little water she had with other children. When soon there was no water at all, the thirsty children would look at Sakina hopefully, and because she could not help them she would have tears in her eyes. Sakina's lips were parched with thirst.
On the Ashura day, she gave her Mashk to Hazrat Abbas. He went to get water for her. The children gathered round Sakina with their little cups, knowing that as soon as Hazrat Abbas brought any water, Sakina would first make sure that they had some before taking any herself. When Sakina saw Imaam Hussain bringing the blood drenched 'alam she knew that her uncle Abbas had been killed. From that day on Sakina never complained of thirst.
Then came the time when the earth shook and Sakina became an orphan! But even then she always thought of the others first. She would console her mother on the death of Ali Asghar and when she saw any other lady or child weeping Sakina would put her little arms around her.
Yes Sakina never again asked anyone for water. Bibi Zainab would persuade her to take a few sips, but she herself would never ask for water or complain of thirst!!!!
From the time when Imaam Hussain fell in the battle field, Sakina forgot to smile! Kufa saw her as a sombre little girl lost in thought. Quite often she would sit up at night. When asked if she wanted anything, she would say, "I just heard a baby cry? Is it Asghar? He must be calling out for me!"
Knowing that her weeping upset her mother, Sakina would cry silently and quickly wipe away her tears! In the prison in Shaam she would stare at the flock of birds flying to their nests at sunset and innocently ask Bibi Zainab, "Will Sakina be going home like those birds flying to their homes?"
Then one dreadful night Sakina went to bed on the cold floor of the prison. For a long time she stared into the darkness! The time for the morning prayers came. Sakina was still lying with her eyes wide open. Her mother called out: "Wake up, Sakina! Wake up, it is time for prayers, my child!" There was only the painful silence! Our fourth Imaam walked up to where Sakina lay. He put his hand on her forehead. It was cold! He put his hand near the mouth and the nose. Sakina had stopped breathing. In between sobs Imaam Zain ul 'Abideen said:
"INNA LILLAHI WA INNA ILAYHI RAAJI'OON!"
How was Sakina buried? Zainab held the still child as Imaam Zain ul 'Abideen dug a grave in the cell. As the grave was being filled up after the burial the mother let out a scream! How could anyone console Bibi Rubaab? What could they say? They huddled around her, and the prison walls began to shake with the cry: "YA SAKINA, YA MAZLOOMAH!!" Bibi Rubaab put her cheek on Sakina's grave and cried out:
"Speak to me, Sakina! Only a word, my child! Speak to me!!"
All those who are familiar with the Imam's life do certainly realize that his role in serving Islam had started very early in his life. He has contributed to the rising Islamic movement when he was a boy, and played a significant role, when his father was the Commander of the faithful, taking part in all three wars that his father fought along with the rest of the faithful companions and followers.
When his brother Hassan (A.S.) became Imam, he obeyed and followed him in all what he said or did. Then his role entered a new stage with the passing away of his brother. And since the role of any Imam of Ahl ul-Bait is defined in accordance with the nature of the social and political conditions of his age, the Imam drew a new course in determining the direction of the Islamic movement.
Winds of Revolution:When Muawiah died in the middle of Rajab of year 60(Hijra), and his son Yazied took power, and ordered his walis to ask for the people's pledge of loyalty and especially that of Imam Hussain (A.S.), a wave of rejection and opposition to the policy of betrayal and tyranny mounted, and the Imam decided to rise to his religious responsibilities as the lawful Imam and the leader of the Islamic nation entrusted with the task of preserving its divine message.
He (A.S.) went to his grandfather's (S.A.W) grave, and recited the following prayer:
"O God, This is the grave of your Prophet, Muhammad (S.A.W) and I am his daughter's son, and I have come to know what you undoubtedly know. O God, I like to enjoin the good and reject the evil. I ask you O All-Mighty God by this grave and by who is in it to choose for me what would please You and Your Prophet".Thus Imam Hussain (A.S.) pledged that he would defend the message whatever the cost, as long as it would lead to Allah's satisfaction.
The Imam went on to meet with his relatives and followers and inform them of his intention to leave to Mekkah. He was met by a lot of opposition of those who tried to dissuade him, either because they were afraid that he would get killed, or because they were not courageous enough to follow him. But his resolve to uphold the right was not shaken by such objections or threats.
He declared his first revolutionary communiqu頷hich took the form of a will he wrote to his brother, Muhammad bin Al-Hanifiah:
"...I did not revolt for the cause of evil tyranny or corruption, but to reform my grandfather's (Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W)) nation. I want to enjoin the good and denounce the evil, and take the course of my father and grandfather".This eternal communiqu頷as the official declaration of his revolution.
The Imam (A.S.) traveled to Mekkah and there he chose to stay at the house of Al-Abass bin Abdul Mutalib, where the faithful believers of Mekkah, as well as those outside it, started to visit him and pledge loyalty to him. News about the political uprising in Kaufa reached Mekkah, and the leaders of the city wrote a letter in which they declared their opposition to the Ummayad rule, and they would not accept anybody else but Imam Hussain (A.S.) to rule them. This letter was followed by many other letters asking the Imam to come to their city to assume his rule as an Imam of the faithful.
On the way to the Greater Martyrdom:
Yazied became so worried that he decided to send an army led by Amr bin Saad bin Al-Ass, to kill the Imam wherever they found him and whatever the costs. When the Imam heard that Yazied's army was heading towards Mekkah, he was afraid that they would violate the sanctuary of the City, so he decided to leave to Kaufa although he knew before hand the ultimate destiny he was to face.
Imam Hussain (A.S.) and his companions headed towards Iraq; although he was certain that he was going to be killed. But he believed that the true victory of Allah's message would be realized through his martyrdom, since there was no one else to stand up for the oppression. He knew that the nation would not wake up except by such a great shock. Therefore, let this shock be his martyrdom, along with Ahl ul-Bait who went all the way with him.
The Reasons of the Revolution:
Imam Hussain (A.S.) did not possess the necessary force that would enable him to win; he did not even rely on those who wrote to him from Kaufa. For he declared his revolution before he received their letters and delegates. Al-Hijaz too did not give him enough support to be able to stand against the Ummayads. Therefore he decided to leave to Iraq for the sole reason of preventing any blood shedding in the Holy City of Mekkah. Moreover, he knew that he was destined to die; yet he went on.
Why then did he insist; and why did he declare his revolution?
To answer this question, one should be aware of the following facts:
First: Yazied represented a real danger to the Islamic nation, for he was not a true Muslim. He was not properly educated with the teachings of Islam. And he used to drink alcohol, gamble, and commit all other sins according to historic sources. He said: Banu Hashim staged a play to obtain the Kingdom. Actually, there was neither any news (from Allah) nor any revelation. Such a man could not be entrusted with the affairs of the nation. Nevertheless, the faithful forces, with Imam Hussain (A.S.) as their leader, had benefited a lot from these points of weakness in the personality of such an evil ruler.
In these circumstances it might not be strange to see many Muslim dignitaries trying to convince Imam Hussain (A.S.) to avoid the confrontation with Yazid, although they bore witness to the corruption of the Ummayads, and they also realized that it was the Imam's duty and right to face it. He was thus approached by Abdallah bin Umar bin Khattab and Abdallah bin Al-Zubair, as well as some of his family members. These are some of the manifestations of the absence of the militant spirit among most Muslim leaders.
As for the common people, this negative spirit spread among them to a terrifying extent. The people of kaufa, for example, broke all their pledges promises and oaths, once they were subjected to the wave of terror led by Ibn Ziyad, as well as seducing them with promises of wealth and power. These factors were among the main reasons that led to the announcement of the revolution. The Imam wanted to shake the dead consciences because he knew that there was no reason what speeches and talks to galvanize and mobilize the people and solidify their morals.
Second:The general level of the nation as a whole was below the required to stand up to the current of sweeping deviation. A tendency to treasure the pleasures of this world began to be visible in all sections of the nation, as a substitute to the spirit of sacrifice for the cause of Allah. And this enabled the opportunistic current to win and hold the positions of ruling and guidance.
Third:It was necessary that the nation should learn about the true Islamic conception of the Imamate; it's true role and its dimensions. The dangerous effects of undermining the Islamic conceptions which was played by the Ummayad rule was never emerging from the grass root level, but rather from the high levels of leadership that monopolized all means of guidance. Therefore, in accordance with the demands of the Islamic message, and the qualities that have to be available in a Muslim ruler, Imam Hussain (A.S.) had to explain these issues to the Muslim masses in every speech he made or any other opportunity he had: "O people you have to be pious believers, and know the right. That is better for you. We the members of the family of Muhammad (Ahl ul-Bait) are more entitled to be the rulers than those who claim what is not rightfully theirs; those oppressors and tyrants".
With such roaring words the Imam Hussain (A.S.) revealed that the Ummayads who have deviated from the right Islamic path are not fit to be rulers, and explained to the nation the foundations of the course an Islamic traits that are embodied in the Imam himself that qualify him to be Imam of the nation. Thus, underlining the Islamic conception of the Imamate and revealing the falsehood of the Ummayad claims were among the fundamental reasons that made the Imam declare his revolution.
Fourth:The Islamic message offers no justification for the Muslim to relief him from performing his duties as a man who has obligations towards the message he believes in. Man in the Islamic society is not an independent individual but rather a person who is integrated in his society and who should perform his duties towards the Islamic message. But to fulfill his commitments towards Allah's Shariah in enjoining the good and forbidding the evil meant that he had to follow the path of the revolution, because it was the only way that provided any hope for reform in his grandfather's (S.A.W) nation.
These are the main reasons that gave Imam Hussain (A.S.) and his companions the right to declare the victorious revolution, which immortalized Islam and inspired the coming generations to defend it and to hold fast in the Holy Wars of Jihad.