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Let's know more about morality of Imam al-Jawid & Imam al-Hidi

Morality of Imam al-Jaw¡d

Imam al-Jaw¡d was unique in terms of knowledge, forbearance, eloquence, devotion and other moral virtues despite his being underage. He had a wonderful aptitude for answering scientific questions on the spot. Like his purified ancestors, Imam al-Jaw¡d paid much attention to physical appearance and cleanliness.

A Blessed Letter

A man of the tribe of Ban£-°an¢fah from the region of Bost and Sistan has reported: I came to know Imam al-Jaw¡d when I was on my °ajj to Mecca and it was the beginning of the reign of al-Mu`ta¥im the `Abb¡sid ruler. We were sitting round a tablecloth and while some of the friends of the `Abb¡sid ruler were also present, I said to the Imam, “May I be your ransom! Our governor has love for Ahl al-Bayt and I am charged to pay tax to him. Should you consider it advisable, kindly write to him to do me a favor by canceling the tax. To observe dissimulation aimed at preserving the life of the ruler of Sistan, Imam al-Jaw¡d said, “I do not know him!” I said, “May I be your ransom; as I have already said he is a devotee of Ahl al-Bayt and your writing to him will be useful for me.” Imam al-Jaw¡d picked up a piece of paper and wrote, “In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. The holder of letter speaks well of you. What is left of your deeds is the good ones. So be kind to your brethren and know that you will be taken to task by Allah for an atom’s weight of your deeds.”

The letter holder reports: The news of the letter had reached the governor of the region, °usayn ibn `Abdull¡h Nays¡b£r¢, before my arrival. So before I reached Sistan, he had come to the gate of city to welcome me. I gave him the letter. He kissed and put it on his eyes, saying, “What do you need?” I said, “I have been levied a tax which I cannot afford to pay.” He ordered the tax to be written off, saying, “As long as I am the governor of this region, don’t pay tax.” He then asked about my dependents. I gave him the number of my dependents. So he ordered a regular pension to be given to me. After this event, I did not pay tax as long as I lived nor did he stop sending me gifts until he passed away.[1]


Protecting the Oppressed

`Al¢ ibn Jar¢r has reported: I was in the presence of Imam al-Jaw¡d when a sheep of the house was missing. At this time, one of the neighbors was brought to the Imam on charge of theft. The Imam said, “Woe to you! Let him go. He has not stolen the sheep. The sheep is in such and such man’s house. Go and find it there.”

They went to the same house finding the sheep there. They arrested the owner of the house, tore his clothes into pieces and beat him up, but he took an oath that he had not stolen the sheep. They brought him to the Imam who asked, “Why have you oppressed him? The sheep had entered his house and this man was not aware of it.” Then the Imam appeased him and gave him an amount of money to make up for his clothes and beating.[2]

Dignity of Imam al-Jaw¡d

After the martyrdom of Imam al-Ri¤¡ (a.s), people kept on blaming Ma’m£n, the `Abb¡sid ruler. Wishing to acquit himself of the crime, he left Khorasan for Baghdad and wrote a letter to Imam al-Jaw¡d (a.s) inviting him to Baghdad with much honor. The Imam set off for Baghdad, but before seeing the Imam, Ma’m£n went hunting. On his way, he came across a group of children who were standing on the way. Imam al-Jaw¡d too was standing there. Observing the pomp of Ma’m£n, the children were dispersed. However, the Imam did not move from his place! He was standing in his place with the utmost degree of calm and dignity until Ma’m£n came near to him. He was amazed to see the child. Drawing the reins of the horse, Ma’m£n asked, “Why did not you clear the way like other children?” The Imam replied, “O caliph! The road was not narrow nor had I committed anything wrong to escape from you! I don’t think you will punish anyone without having committed anything wrong.” Ma’m£n was surprised more when he heard these words. He had been attracted by his beauty so he asked, “What is your name, boy?” The Imam said, “My name is Mu¦ammad.” He asked, “Who is your father?” The Imam said, “`Al¢ ibn M£s¡ al-Ri¤¡.” When Ma’m£n heard of the child’s descent, he was no more surprised and was ashamed of hearing the name of the Imam whom he had martyred! He sent greeting to the pure soul of the Imam and went away.

When he went back to wilderness, he caught sight of a francolin and let a falcon go after it. The falcon disappeared for sometime but when it returned, it had a small fish still living in its beak. Ma’m£n was surprised to see it; he took the fish in his hand and returned to the same place where he had seen Imam al-Jaw¡d. Again the children were dispersed but the Imam did not move from his place. Ma’m£n said, “Mu¦ammad: What is it in my hand?” Through inspiration, the Imam said, “Allah has created seas; clouds rise up from seas; small fish come up with clouds; kings’ falcons hunt them; the kings take them in their hands and test the Household of the Prophet!” Ma’m£n was surprised more to hear this, saying, “You are truly the son of al-Ri¤¡! Such wonderful acts are possible only by the son of that honorable man.”[3]

Ma’m£n’s Trickery

Ma’m£n played every trick to make Imam al-Jaw¡d as worldly and sensual as himself but he failed in his plot until he gave her daughter in marriage to the Imam. On the wedding night, he ordered a hundred slave-girls who were the most beautiful to hold a chalice each in their hands to welcome the Imam in the bridal chamber with much pomp and glory. The slave-girls did as they had been ordered but Imam al-Jaw¡d paid not attention to them. Ma’m£n had to call Mukh¡riq, a music performer who had a sweet voice and played viol. Mukh¡riq said to Ma’m£n, “O Leader of the Faithful! If you wish al-Jaw¡d to have a desire of the world, my voice will suffice it.” Mukh¡riq sat face to face with the Imam and started singing. He sang in a way that all the people of the house gathered round him. Then, he started playing viol. He did so for one hour but Imam al-Jaw¡d looked neither at right side not left side. Finally the Imam raised his head saying, “Fear Allah, O you long-bearded man!” At this moment the viol fell from the hands of the music performer and he enjoyed it no more until he died.[4]

A Sh¡fi`¢te’s Opinion about The Imam

Kam¡l al-D¢n Sh¡fi`¢, a great Sunni scholar, about Imam al-Jaw¡d writes: This (Imam Mu¦ammad al-Jaw¡d) Ab£-Ja`far is the second Mu¦ammad. The first is Mu¦ammad al-B¡qir. He has a high-ranking position. He is renowned everywhere. His broad-mindedness and sweet-speaking have attracted everyone. He was destined to die young. He lived a short life but he was a source of benefits for all. Everyone who saw him bowed to him and benefited from his knowledge. He was a source of light which illuminated everything. Both intellect and mind benefited from his knowledge.[5]


Morality of Imam al-Hadi

Ab£-H¡shim Ja`far¢ has reported: I was afflicted with a bad poverty; so, I went to Ab£’l-°asan `Al¢ ibn Mu¦ammad. When I sat in his presence, he asked, “Ab£-H¡shim! Which of the bounties of your Lord will you thank?” I could not speak nor did I know what answer to give to the Imam. He said,

رَزَقَكَ الإيمَانَ فَحَرَّمَ بَدَنَكَ عَلَى النَّارِ. وَرَزَقَكَ الْعَافِيَةَ فَأعَانَكَ عَلَى الطَّاعَةِ. وَرَزَقَكَ الْقُنُوعَ فَصَانَكَ عَنِ التَّبَذُّلِ.

“Allah has given you faith as sustenance hence made your body immune from Hellfire. He has also given you good health hence helped you to obey Him. And He has given you contentment as sustenance hence made you immune from unrestrained way of living.

O Ab£-H¡shim! I have started speaking to you with these words, for I had the impression that you were going to complain to me of One Who has given you all these blessings. Meanwhile I have ordered one hundred Dinars to be given to you.”[6]

Sanitation and Climate

Quoting his uncle, Fa¦¦¡m Man¥£ri reports: One day Imam al-H¡d¢ (a.s) said, “I was brought reluctantly to the city of S¡marr¡' (literally meaning one who sees it becomes happy). Now if they make me leave this city, I will do it reluctantly.” I said, “Why is that, my master?” The Imam said, “For its good climate, its sanitation and its little diseases.”[7]

Special Favor Towards Sh¢`ites

A group of people from I¥fah¡n including Ab£’l-`Abb¡s A¦mad ibn Nazar and Ab£-Ja`far Mu¦ammad ibn Alawiah report: In I¥fah¡n, there was a man of Sh¢`ite faith named `Abd al-Ra¦m¡n. He was asked, “Why in our time you have made belief in the Imamate of `Al¢ al-Naq¢ (a.s) incumbent upon yourself?” He answered: I have seen something which made the Imam’s leadership obligatory to me: I dare to say I was a needy man and one year, the people of I¥fah¡n sent me along with other persons to the court of al-Mutawakkil, the `Abb¡sid ruler, to plead for justice. We were in Mutawakkil’s court when the order to summon `Al¢ ibn Mu¦ammad ibn Ri¤¡ was issued. I asked some of the persons present in the court who this man was. It was said that he was an Alawi in whose Imamate the heretics believe. Mutawakkil may have summoned him to kill him. I decided not to leave this place to see what he looks like. Finally He came on a horse while people were standing on the two sides of the road, watching him. As soon as I saw him, I began to love him and said: May Allah relieve him from the evil of Mutawakkil. He was looking only at the mane of his horse without paying attention to his right or left side. I was also praying for him. When he was passing by me, he turned his holy face towards me saying, “Allah has answered your prayer, prolonged your life, and made your wealth and children abundant.” Hearing this, I trembled and fell down among my friends, they asked, “What happened?” I said, “Just a blessing and said no more.” I then returned to I¥fah¡n. Allah gave me such a fortune that in addition to what I have outside my house, I have assets worth several thousands of dirham at home. I am also blessed with ten children. I am now seventy and odd years, believing in the Imamate of that honorable Imam who knew what was in my mind and whose prayer Allah answered in relation to me.[8]

Healing a Leper

Abu H¡shim Ja`far¢ has reported: A man from S¡marr¡' was afflicted with leprosy hence life had become hard for him. One day, he was complaining to Ab£-`Al¢ Fahr¢ of his plight. Ab£-`Al¢ said, “Should you ask Ab£’l-°asan `Al¢ ibn Mu¦ammad ibn al-Ri¤¡ to pray for you, your disease will be healed.” One day when the Imam was returning from Mutawakkil’s house, the leper who was sitting on the way rose up to get close to the Imam to ask him to pray for the healing of his disease. The Imam said three times, “Go aside; Allah will restore your good health while pointing to him with his holy hand.” Ab£-`Al¢ Fahr¢ saw the leper who told him about his meeting with the Imam. Ab£-`Al¢ said, “The Imam prayed for you before you asked him to do so. Make sure you will restore your good health soon.” The leper went home. The night passed; and when it dawned there was no sign of leprosy on his body.[9]


Kindness To Relatives

D¡w£d ibn Q¡sim Ja`far¢ reports: I had gone to say farewell to the Imam in S¡marr¡' for going on °ajj. He came out with me and when he came to the end of the retaining wall, he descended and I descended too. The Imam drew a circle on the ground saying, “O uncle! Take what is inside this circle for spending during your °ajj.” I pounded on the earth with my fist and found a bar of gold containing two hundred misqals of gold.[10]

Generosity

Mu¦ammad ibn ±al¦ah has reported: One day, Imam al-H¡d¢ left S¡marr¡' for a village for an important case which had come about. An Arab came to meet him. So, the man was told that the Imam had gone to such and such place. The Arab too went to the village to see him. The Imam asked, “What do you need?” He answered, “I am an Arab from K£fah who believes in the Imamate of your great grandfather, `Al¢ ibn Ab£-±¡lib. I have a heavy debt which is hard to pay. I find no one but you to pay my debt.” The Imam said, “Be happy.” He received him as a guest, and in the morning said, “I ask you something you should not oppose!” The Arab said, “I will not oppose to what you do.” The Imam wrote a note in his own handwriting admitting that he owed the Arab a certain amount of money which was more than the Arab’s debt. Then the Imam said, “Take this note and bring it to me in S¡marr¡'. There are a group of people beside me. Show this note, speak harshly and demand your money.” The Arab agreed and left the Imam. When the Imam reached S¡marr¡', a group of the companions of the ruler were with him when the Arab arrived, showed the handwriting, demanded the money and spoke as the Imam had advised him. Imam al-H¡d¢ spoke softly to him and promised to pay his dept. The story of Imam al-H¡d¢ and the Arab reached Mutawakkil. He ordered to take thirty thousand Dirhams for Imam al-H¡d¢. When The Imam received the money, he did not touch it until the Arab came. Then the Imam said, “Take this money, pay your debt, spend the rest for your living expenditures and accept our apology.” The Arab said, “O son of Allah’s Messenger! By Allah! I expected only one third of this money but Allah knows where to place His message He took the money and left for home.”[11]

Choosing A Name For A Child

Ayy£b ibn N£¦ has reported: I wrote a letter to Imam al-H¡d¢ saying, “My wife is pregnant. Pray to Allah to give me a son.” Imam al-H¡d¢ wrote back, “When your son is born, name him Mu¦ammad.” My wife gave birth to a son whom I named Mu¦ammad.[12]

 



[1] Al-K¡f¢: 5/111, ° 6.

[2] Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, 47/50, ° 22.

[3] Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r: 91/5, Chapter: 5, ° 6.

[4] Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r: 61/50, Chapter: 26, ° 37.

[5] Ma§¡lib al-Sa’£l Man¡qib ªl al-Ras£l: 140.

[6] Man-l¡-Yahduruhu’l-Faqih 401/4, ° 5863.

[7] Al-Am¡l¢ by Shaykh al-±£s¢: 281, ° 545.

[8] Al-Khar¡’ij wa’l-Jar¡’i¦: 392/1, 11.

[9] Al-Khar¡’ij wa’l-Jar¡’i¦: 399/1, 11.

[10] Al-Man¡qib: 409/4.

[11] Kashf al-Ghummah: 374/2.

[12] Kashf al-Ghummah: 385/2.


source : Allameh Hussein Ansariyan
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